• 2020.7.25
  • Comments Off on Wikipediaで英語のリーディング(カタカナとは)5

Wikipediaで英語のリーディング(カタカナとは)5

Wikipediaで英語のリーディング(カタカナとは)1
Wikipediaで英語のリーディング(カタカナとは)2
Wikipediaで英語のリーディング(カタカナとは)3
Wikipediaで英語のリーディング(カタカナとは)4
の続きです。

A character called a sokuon, which is visually identical to a small tsu ッ, indicates that the following consonant is geminated (doubled); this is represented in rōmaji by doubling the consonant that follows the sokuon. In Japanese this is an important distinction in pronunciation; for example, compare サカ saka “hill” with サッカ sakka “author”.
【語彙】
sokuon:促音(=「ん」)
following consonant:後に続く子音
geminate :[ジェミネイト]二重にする
represent:[レプリゼント] ~を示す、~を意味する
by doubling the consonant:子音を二重にすることで
distinction in pronunciation;:発音上の特徴

Geminated consonants are common in transliterations of foreign loanwords; for example English “bed” is represented as ベッド (beddo). The sokuon also sometimes appears at the end of utterances, where it denotes a glottal stop. However, it cannot be used to double the na, ni, nu, ne, no syllables’ consonants; to double these, the singular n (ン) is added in front of the syllable. The sokuon may also be used to approximate a non-native sound: Bach is written バッハ (Bahha); Mach as マッハ (Mahha).
【語彙】
transliteration:[トランスリタレイション]字訳、書き直し、音訳
utterance:[アタランス]発話
denote:示す、意味する、(…の)しるしである
glottal stop:声門閉鎖音

Both katakana and hiragana usually spell native long vowels with the addition of a second vowel kana. However, in foreign loanwords katakana instead uses a vowel extender mark, called a chōonpu (“long vowel mark”). This is a short line (ー) following the direction of the text, horizontal for yokogaki (horizontal text), and vertical for tategaki (vertical text). For example, メール mēru is the gairaigo for e-mail taken from the English word “mail”; the ー lengthens the e. There are some exceptions, such as ローソク (rōsoku (蝋燭, “candle”)) or ケータイ(kētai (携帯, “mobile phone”)), where Japanese words written in katakana use the elongation mark, too.
Standard and voiced iteration marks are written in katakana as ヽ and ヾ, respectively.
【語彙】
vowel extender mark:母音延長マーク=long vowel mark
chōonpu:長音符
horizontal text:横書き
vertical text:縦書き
gairaigo:外来語
lengthen:[レングスン(スはthの音)] (…を)長くする、のばす
elongation:[イロンゲイション]延長
iteration:[イタレイション]繰り返し、反復

(情報元:本文はWikipedia(Katakana)より 、英単語の意味はWeblioより。)

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